Extra Virgin Olive Oil has been handed down to us from our ancestors for millennia. Long believed to have curative powers, we now know factually that there is much truth to this centuries old belief, but as with so much in life, there is a gotcha. Only Extra Virgin Olive Oil has enough health benefits to make it worthwhile, and not all bottles labeled Extra Virgin Olive Oil actually meets the definition of “Extra Virgin” quality. What can we do to ensure that we are receiving the desired health benefits that we paid good money for and enjoy its delightful and well sought after flavors. Do you think that the first press of the olive is all that it takes to actually be “extra virgin grade”? Then you’d be surprised to find that there is more to the story that you were aware of.
There are 101 Health Benefits of Olive Oil that are known to us so far, including protecting your heart and arteries, reducing stroke, reducing cholesterol, reduce hunger, improve memory, plus the other 96 currently known benefits.12 Every TV doctor, including Dr Oz, has raved about how wonderful this natural product is for us, we’ve also been bombarded with articles in our newspapers and magazines.18 19 20 21 22 23 24
Olive oil is the only oil that can be made by simply squeezing the source, all other vegetable oils require chemical processing, leading us to desire extra virgin olive oil even more. In this day of synthetics, its so rare that the consumer can actually enjoy a natural, pure product and have it benefit them so much.
Its certainly clear by now that we really do want the extraordinary benefits of extra virgin olive oil, so it warrants deeper examination. Lets begin with a little background information.
Olive oil is made by squeezing, milling centrifuging or grinding olives (the fruit of Olea europaea; family Oleaceae), in a press. A simple enough process that its been with us at least since the time of the Caesars, 2,000 years ago, the first human cultivation of olives is currently believed to have began as far back as 6,000 years ago.
Dynastic Egyptians before 2000 BC imported olive oil from Crete, Syria and Canaan and oil was an important item of commerce and wealth. Remains of olive oil have been found in jugs over 4,000 years old in a tomb on the island of Naxos in the Aegean Sea. Sinuhe, the Egyptian exile who lived in northern Canaan about 1960 BC, wrote of abundant olive trees.2
“The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor where it is extremely abundant and grows in thick forests. It appears to have spread from Syria to Greece via Anatolia (De Candolle, 1883) although other hypotheses point to lower Egypt, Nubia, Ethiopia, the Atlas Mountains or certain areas of Europe as its source area. Caruso for that reason believed it to be indigenous to the entire Mediterranean Basin and considers Asia Minor to have been the birthplace of the cultivated olive some six millennia ago.”28
Olive Oil Fraud
Olive oil is a booming business in America: sales top $1.5 billion and are growing at 10% a year, making the U.S. the world’s third-largest consumer of olive oil.
Tests indicate that imported “extra virgin”olive oil often fails international and USDA standards – UC Davis Olive Center, July 20101
In 2008 more than 400 Italian police officers executed “Operation Golden Oil” leading to the arrest of 23 people and confiscation of 85 farms. Subsequently, more than 40 additional people were arrested. Their crime? Creating and selling fake extra virgin olive oil by adding chlorophyll to sunflower and soybean oil.10
The news Mr. Mueller [New York Times] brings about extra virgin olive oil — E.V.O.O., as Rachael Ray likes to put it — is alarming. The liquid that gets passed off as such in supermarkets and restaurants is often anything but. Shady dealers along the supply chain frequently adulterate olive oil with low-grade vegetable oils and add artificial coloring.11
The tradition of olive oil fraud goes bar further than any of us had imagined:13
“Is there any foodstuff as dodgy as olive oil? Human beings have been defrauding and occasionally poisoning one another with the stuff – or simulacra of it – since the beginning of cooking. You may fairly picture a Sumerian house-spouse 5,000 years ago frowning at an amphora and saying: “The guy said he actually cold-presses extra virgin olives in his own kitchen. Funny taste, though…” Luckily, according to the cuneiform tablets discovered at Ebla, the Sumerians had a royally appointed olive oil fraud brigade.”
Although the label may say extra virgin, and the oil may be from the first pressing, the manufacturer may still apply techniques that may surprise you. Our expectation of the term “Extra Virgin” can vary greatly from what a manufacturer actually delivers into the bottle you are holding in your hand.
Bleaching—Eliminates any pigments in the crude oil.
Degumming—Delivers the “high smoke point” that cooks need for sauteing and frying. Degumming works by removes the free fatty acids and small quantities of proteins and other substances that contribute to the instability of the oil during high-temperature cooking.
Deodorizing—Eliminates substances that causes oil to go rancid, and thus prolong its shelf life.
Hydrogenation—Adding hydrogen prevents oxidation or aging of the oil.
Refining—An alkaline substance (often caustic soda) is added to transform the oil’s fatty acids into soap, which is then extracted from the oil via centrifugation.
Anti-oxidation—Synthetic vitamin E is added to further prolong shelf life.
To give the oil a green appearance, as well as some taste and aroma, the processor will often add chemicals and artifical flavors, such as chlorophyll and beta carotene.17
University Of California at UC Davis performed a scientific analysis of Extra Virgin Olive Oil1 they found that 70% of the oils they tested failed!1
“Extra virgin” is the top grade of olive oil according to standards established by the International Olive Council (IOC) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). In addition to establishing chemistry standards for extra virgin, the IOC/USDA have established a sensory standard — the oil must have zero defects and greater than zero fruitiness. Over the past several years, trained olive oil tasters who have served on IOC-recognized sensory panels have reported to the UC Davis Olive Center that much of the olive oil sold in the United States as “extra virgin” does not meet this modest sensory standard.
Tasting Extra Virgin Olive Oil
Is there a grassy, herbaceous bite at first taste? Subtle olive flavor then rolling off to a black pepper finish? Or are the notes of fruit or something else?
All these items comprise the flavor profile of the oil. Each olive variation, brand, as well as each harvest and environmental conditions each year can have profound effects on the flavor experience.
One of my favorite joys is not just the taste of a good extra virgin olive oil, its the fragrance when heated in a cooking pan. Yes, I know that heating Olive Oil will destroy many of the good health benefits, but we don’t deep fry in our household, its not a problem. We do however put some olive oil in a pan and gently heat our meals so the wonderful aroma fills our home with fond memories of family events, exotic caribbean foods being prepared continuously in the kitchen that is filled with the sounds of happy people joyously creating heartfelt memories for the rest of us.
Having tried every olive oil I could get my hands on, and putting them in the pan to enjoy its aromatic goodness, I was quite surprised today when I smelled this incredible bouquet wafting through our home. The fragrance permeated me completely, reaching deep inside and filling me with flashes from previous wonderful meals, throughout my life.
This amazing fragrance was familiar yet somehow better than anything I could remember, so I had to ask my wife what she was cooking. It turned out to be that she got a hold of the bottle of Goya brand extra virgin olive oil, that I had purchased for testing. I had completely forgotten just how wonderful Goya was, and I highly recommend that you find a bottle (in the Hispanic isle of your better supermarkets, Goya is the biggest, most well known hispanic food brand) and heat it gently in a wide pan and see how your family reacts. Adding minced garlic and shallots to the Goya will only send them into ecstasy, at least that is what happens in my household.
I’m convinced that Goya has a master blender working for them, not only to make their extra virgin olive oil consistently good from year to year, I suspect that the blender pays as careful attention to the amazing bouquet that is released when heated, as they do to the taste of their marvelous oil, when its cold.
In the U.S., its believed that imported olive oil, from Spain, is far less likely to be adulterated, because the olive oils from Greece and Italy are well know to be mostly fraudulent in one way or another. Although there is no guarantee that Spanish olive oil will always be pure, there have been two documented cases of arrests due to fraud, the Spanish government and University system take it very seriously and work very hard to produce a superior product. So ultimately, the odds are in your favor if you buy extra virgin olive oil from either California or Spain.
There is more fraudulent extra virgin olive oil in the U.S. than anywhere else, because we are so far away from the producers that they feel they can’t get caught. They purposely focus the majority of their sales to the U.S. to avoid prosecution and for the high profit margin that they can get.
Spain has twice the acreage of second place Italy and third place Greece, so their economy is highly dependent on this revenue, resulting in a far more serious attitude towards the quality of their product. Spain also produces more oil per acre than any other region, making t the top producer of olive oil in the world.14
Tips and Traps
“Harvest Date” or “Crop Date”
Is a good thing to find on the label. While there are many fine quality olive oils that aren’t dated, it really helps the consumer when they are. Best results are when the oil is consumed within 24 moths of harvest. Its possible to get oil that is barely a few months old and those are the ones that I actively seek out.
Don’t be fooled by “Bottled Date”, it really means nothing to me, unless the producer clearly states that the olive oil was bottled the same day that it was harvested, otherwise its just sitting around absorbing oxygen, which is definitely not a good thing.
Olive oil that is labeled with a “best if used by” date, are the same to me as oils that have no date. Its meaningless. Don’t rely on it.
Olive Oil from Portugal has traditionally been made from olives that have been put into a storage system (silo, etc.) after picking. This aging process causes the oil to extract easier but it also greatly increases the level of acidity in the olive oil, which is undesirable. Avoid these oils and try to get olive oil that is certified or tested to have acidity that is 0.4% or lower. There are countries and organizations that claim that acidity in olive oil up to 0.8% is acceptable, but personally I side with Spain, where I trust their olive oil (and have personally used their olive oil for over 50 years) and because the Spaniards cutoff for extra virgin olive oil is 0.4%, as it should be.
Expensive olive oil isn’t always better
The one “rule” I found that seemed to actually work, when selecting olive oil, is that the closer the farm is to you, the easier it is to get a great oil. Its simple math, if the tree is closer to you then its takes less time and fewer middlemen to put it into your hands.
That doesn’t mean that you can enjoy imported oil, you can. And it also does not mean that all expensive oil is a rip off, they can have characteristics that are worth the cost, if you can appreciate it.
In the US, we have great, world class, olive oil from California, but they are produced by hand in small batches so its easy to buy much cheaper oil fro overseas, its up to yo to figure out if your getting a good deal or if you’re buying garbage
There are certifying seals, mostly in European olive oil, that are supposed to verify that the olive oil came from a specific region. My take on it is that I have not seen any international police organization shut down a company and seize its assets for fraud, yet we know tat olive oil fraud has been rampant for at least 2,000 years.
If these fraudsters are bold enough to sell you rancid products or olive oil that has been watered down with cheap oils, what makes you think that they wouldn’t stamp a fake seal on the bottle?
Keep in mind that Certifying Seals only work inside the country that supplied the seal, and even in that case, it only works if their police departments aggressively manage the situation.
Since we are so far away, in the US of A, the country of origin might never know if a counterfeit seal was being used here. How would they? What could they do about it, since its outside their borders. Don’t rely on certifying seals verify what you are buying then find a way to double check that verification.
Label information is often used to confuse and defraud the consumer. Bottles of extra virgin olive oil labeled “Imported From Italy” means that the oil was shipped to Italy and bottled there, its means nothing else. Typically that means that oil was shipped in bulk from another country processed indifferently, bottled in Italy and then shipped to the consumer. Occasionally the label will note the country of origin for the olives, so its clear that its not Italy. This is not generally a good practice since olives are very delicate and will likely be bruised, split, damaged, rancid and otherwise not the product that we pay a premium for.
Its not unusual for a restaurant to refill empty extra virgin olive oil bottles with inferior oils (sometimes they are not even olive oil at all, which is an absolute and complete rip off for their clients, so in Italy they have started to try to combat the rampant problem there with olive oil bottle closures that cannot be refilled, in compliance with Italian Law.8
Discount Olive Oil
If a olive oil is cheap, its probably gone bad or isn’t really olive oil. You get what you pay for and if you don’t pay much, you won’t get any value. News stories of arrests in Europe, related to millions of Euros worth of otherwise fraudulent olive oil should serve as a warning to you, this is not a product that yo can go cheap with, your health is worth so much more.
Home Testing Of Extra Virgin Olive Oil
The “Fridge Test”
is no longer a valid test to see if you have authentic oil or not. The concept that olive oil thickens and clouds up in the refrigerator, used to work, to detect fraud, but is just no longer a valid test.
Unfortunately, this does not work today. High oleic acid versions of safflower and other oils, now exist and render the test useless because they thicken up at the same temperature as true olive oil. To make things more complex, expensive, pure olive oil is sometimes filtered (to keep its clear, pristine appearance), knowing that American consumers will often put the oil in the fridge to attempt to extend its life. This changes the temperature at which it thickens up so a perfectly healthy, pure olive oil will appear to be a fraud. We need a better test, one that is simple, easy and consistently reliable.
The Burn Test
Serious Testing Equipment
“Oxitester enables the user to monitor the quality of … vegetable oils. It can be used for olive oil, avocado oil, palm oil, essential oils etc. CDR’s proprietary technology enables one to determine in real time changes in acidity, amounts of peroxides and polyphenols”.
This unit is more expensive than the average consumer would be willing to spend, but if I get enough stores willing to pay me for testing their products, I would be happy to use mine and perform the tests for you. This way you’ll know if there was an anomalous product being delivered to you and you could reject it the same day. I’ll even offer a rapid response service to those interested and get you an analysis within an hour, plus travel time to you. Let me know your interest.
There is also a new product in development called the Tellspec Scanner. Its a laser spectrometer thats intended for use in analyzing for for allergens and toxic chemicals. Its proposed advantage is its potentially low cost, estimated at #320 in December 2013. No production units have been manufactured yet but this could be a good way to sort out obvious frauds. I don’t know if this unit will be sensitive enough to perform polyphenol counts but it might be able to detect if an oil has been adulterated with anything other than olives. Only time will tell what the Tellspec Scanner will do for us.
- Store it in a Cool location
- Ensure its a dark place, without light and certainly no sunlight, ever
- Cap the bottle tightly after each use
Dark Bottle Fable
Olive Oil Color Counts
You also cannot use color to detect any kind of fake olive oil because counterfeiters have learned how to add colorants to cheap vegetable oils and create colors that lay in the olive oil spectrum. Enjoy the color for esthetics sake, but nothing else.
The Smoke Point Debate
Its long been argued that you cannot use olive oil because it has a low smoke point, that it burns. That is not quite true. What is true is that you can find olive oils that smoke at a lower temperature, because they are unfiltered in amy way and the solid particulates (the tiny chunks of olive that survived the crushing process) are prone to burning.
However, that does not mean that all olive oils are prone to premature burning, they aren’t. First, don’t overheat your pan. Second, don’t use cloudy oils for cooking. They have so many particles (which we like for its flavor and for the hand crafted appearance) that they will burn easily. This is I have personally experienced and can attest to.
In ancient times, olive oil was crushed then used, which meant that it always smoked when overheated or burned. Contemporary olive oils are typically clear because they filtered in one way or another. These oils are used for cooking without smoking, as long as you don’t overheat it. All oils will overheat and burn, at the smoke point, we are just talking a matter of a few degrees here.
Chemistry also plays a role in the smoke point. A cooking oil’s smoke point depends on the amount of “free fatty acids” in the oil. High-quality EVOO, by the way, has low levels of the acids.
“The lower the free fatty acid content, the more stable the fat, and the higher the smoke point,” food expert Harold McGee writes in his book, On Food and Cooking (Scribner, 2004).
To be certified as genuine EVOO, the International Olive Council’s guidelines require that an olive oil must have a free fatty acid content of less than 0.8%. The California Olive Oil Council’s standards are stricter, saying a true EVOO must have an acidity level of less than 0.5%.
“So pay more for a well made extra virgin olive oil with a lower acidity and it’ll reward you with significantly more degrees of heating potential,” says Australian olive oil expert Richard Gawel. “In fact, the natural preservatives called polyphenols you find in EVOO protect it from heat degradation.” 14
Copyright © 2013, 2014 Robert Lopez ® All rights reserved. May not be copied, duplicated or distributed without the author’s explicit written permission.
Olive Oil Grades4
Retail grades in IOC member nations
- Extra-virgin olive oil Comes from virgin oil production only, contains no more than 0.8% acidity, and is judged to have a superior taste. Extra Virgin olive oil accounts for less than 10% of oil in many producing countries; the percentage is far higher in the Mediterranean countries (Greece: 80%, Italy: 45%, Spain 30%). It is used on salads, added at the table to soups and stews and for dipping.
- Virgin olive oil Comes from virgin oil production only, has an acidity less than 1.5%, and is judged to have a good taste.
- Pure olive oil. Oils labeled as Pure olive oil or Olive oil are usually a blend of refined and virgin production oil.
- Olive oil is a blend of virgin and refined production oil, of no more than 2% acidity. It commonly lacks a strong flavor.
- Olive pomace oil is refined pomace olive oil often blended with some virgin oil. It is fit for consumption, but may not be described simply as olive oil. It has a more neutral flavor than pure or virgin olive oil, making it unfashionable among connoisseurs; however, it has the same fat composition as regular olive oil, giving it the same health benefits. It also has a high smoke point, and thus is widely used in restaurants as well as home cooking in some countries.
- Lampante oil is olive oil not suitable as food; lampante comes from olive oil’s long-standing use in oil-burning lamps. Lampante oil is mostly used in the industrial market.
- Refined olive oil is the olive oil obtained from virgin olive oils by refining methods that do not lead to alterations in the initial glyceridic structure. It has a free acidity, expressed as oleic acid, of not more than 0.3 grams per 100 grams (0.3%) and its other characteristics correspond to those fixed for this category in this standard. This is obtained by refining virgin olive oils with a high acidity level and/or organoleptic defects that are eliminated after refining. Note that no solvents have been used to extract the oil, but it has been refined with the use of charcoal and other chemical and physical filters.
Retail grades in the United States from the USDA
As the United States is not a member, the IOC retail grades have no legal meaning in that country; terms such as “extra virgin” may be used without legal restrictions but as of October 25, 2010, the U.S. Standards for Grades of Olive Oil and Olive-Pomace Oil went into effect. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) currently has a four-part grading of olive oil based on acidity, absence of defects, odor and flavor4:
- U.S. Extra Virgin Olive Oil for oil with excellent flavor and odor and free fatty acid content of not more than 0.8g per 100g (0.8%);
- U.S. Virgin Olive Oil for oil with reasonably good flavor and odor and free fatty acid content of not more than 2g per 100g (2%);
- U.S. Virgin Olive Oil Not Fit For Human Consumption Without Further Processing is a virgin oil of poor flavor and odor;
- U.S. Olive Oil is an oil mix of both virgin and refined oils;
- U.S. Refined Olive Oil is an oil made from refined oils with some restrictions on the processing;
These grades are voluntary. Certification is available from the USDA on a fee-for-service basis.
Composition of Extra Virgin Olive Oil
Olive oil is composed mainly of the mixed triglyceride esters of oleic acid and palmitic acid and of other fatty acids, along with traces of squalene (up to 0.7%) and sterols (about 0.2% phytosterol and tocosterols). The composition varies by cultivar, region, altitude, time of harvest, and extraction process3:
- Saturated fats Palmitic acid: 7.5–20.0%
- Stearic acid: 0.5–5.0%
- Arachidic acid: <0.6%
- Behenic acid: <0.3%
- Myristic acid: <0.05%
- Lignoceric acid: <0.2%
- Unsaturated fats yes
- Monounsaturated fats Oleic acid: 55.0–83.0%
- Palmitoleic acid: 0.3–3.5%
- Polyunsaturated fats Linoleic acid: 3.5–21.0 %
- α-Linolenic acid: <1.0%
Olive Oil References for Scientists5
In searching for a simple home test to verify and validate that the extra virgin olive oil we buy is the real deal that we expected, I started thinking that the only way to reliably determine the authenticity of our olive oils is to have a lab perform a DNA test on the sample. It turns out that engineers in Spain agree with me and have come up with a method to do precisely that.
Their advances in the art of DNA fingerprinting mean they now need only relatively small samples - typically 100-200ml - to verify if virgin olive oil is really of the variety and origin claimed. And unlike chemical and sensory tests - the results of which can at most strongly indicate the oil has been cut with another vegetable oil - finding the DNA of say hazelnut or sunflower oil in olive oil is unequivocal proof of its presence, they say.
Techniques involved in analyzing olive oil, via mass spectrometer, available from Amazon:
Authentication of Virgin Olive Oil Using NMR and Isotopic Fingerprinting (Food Science and Technology) [Paperback] M. Rosa Alonso-salces (Author), Jose M. Moreno-rojas (Author), Margaret V. Holland (Author), Claude Guillou (Author)
While the average family does not have access to a mass spectrometer, we can all help by spreading the word and illuminating the demand so that those with laboratory equipment will be encouraged to perform these tests for us.
An Overview of the Authentication of Olive Tree and Oil7
Adulteration of virgin olive oil with less expensive oils is a serious problem for the public and quality control evaluators of olive oil. That is why olive oil authenticity has become a major issue for producers, consumers, and policy makers. In order to avoid fraud to consumers, it is crucial to study the traceability of olive oil. This review covers 2 important techniques, analytical, and molecular methods, used to characterize olive oil and detect possible adulteration. Several analytical techniques are discussed for the detection of olive oil adulteration by analyzing minor and major compounds of olive oil. However, the chemical composition of olive oil can dramatically change due to the environmental and processing conditions. For this reason, the DNA-based technologies are gaining greater attention now because they are not influenced by environmental conditions and provide an opportunity for direct comparison of different genetic materials. In this review, we emphasize the great potential of different authenticity methods and discuss their practical implementation in olive oil traceability.
Space Lasers vs. Olive Oil Fraud
The laser, known as an ‘isotope radio-meter’, was created by the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK and is used to scan for very small quantities of gas to identify isotopes in space. Different molecules have a ‘unique fingerprint spectrum’, allowing easy identification … To detect fraudulent food using the device, a few milligrams of the product is burnt. During the burning, carbon dioxide is released which can be tested with the laser. This produces the unique carbon fingerprint for the product which can then be compared to a sample that is known to be a true product from the same geographical location. In this way it is possible to tell if an olive oil genuinely comes from a specific location or if it is a fake.
- Look for oil that has 0.4% acidity or less for best flavor and as a secondary indicator of high quality.
- The best oil is the freshest oil. That is why you cannot rely on oil tasting competitions, because the pattern appears to be that the winners are always the producers that are closest to the competition’s venue, regardless of where in the world the competition is held.
- Get the smallest bottle possible. You can’t economize when it comes to olive oil, getting too large a bottle ensures that the oil will go rancid before you finish it because every time you pour some oil out, you are letting a lot of oxygen in, which quickly damages the oil, reducing its delicate flavor then ultimately spoiling it. Don’t try to economize, you’re only hurting yourself.
- Polyphenol Count is what we look for to receive the health benefits that we read about in the medical studies. Higher is better. Its said that Polyphenols offer a biting sensation at the back of he tongue, sort of like black pepper. I can detect this rather easily but not everyone senses it this way, some people detect it as bitter and many people are not conscious of it at all. In some cases, I noticed that oils that were tested to have very high Polyphenol Counts were not always very peppery to me, so this seems to be an unreliable test.
- Just because a judge in an olive oil competition likes an oil, it does not mean that you will like it. Only you can be your own final judge, find a store that offers free samples and taste it yourself.
- What do I want to see oil producers do is to label every bottle with the date of harvest, date the olives were processed into oil and date it was bottled. This is good for the consumer and therefore good for the producer. Its not too much to ask for, this very process was done 2,000 years ago in the time of the Caesars, apparently it was a big problem in the Roman empire, and it still is today.
- General Tips: buy locally, from a producer that you have tasted the batch you are buying, look for the harvest dates on the label, and hope that you can find an independent assay that includes the Polyphenol count (more is better). You can try an detect the peppery bite at the back of your throat but I found that most people need training to actually notice it. If not then look for the producer’s claim, on the bottle, this is rare now but if we demand it then more will do it.
- Tasting and smelling the extra virgin olive oil yourself is important. Not only will you find that a judge’s palate will be different from your own, so will that of your friends and family.
Quality assessment and authentication of virgin olive oil by NMR spectroscopy: A critical review
Photis Daisa, , , Emmanuel Hatzakisb
a NMR Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, Voutes Campus, 71003 Heraklion, Crete, Greece
b Penn State Department of Chemistry, 104 Chemistry Building, University Park, PA 16802, USA
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy has been extensively used for the analysis of olive oil and it has been established as a valuable tool for its quality assessment and authenticity. To date, a large number of research and review articles have been published with regards to the analysis of olive oil reflecting the potential of the NMR technique in these studies. In this critical review, we cover recent results in the field and discuss deficiencies and precautions of the three NMR techniques (1H, 13C, 31P) used for the analysis of olive oil.
1 UC Davis Report DRAFT: TESTS INDICATE OLIVE OIL LABELED AS “EXTRA VIRGIN” OFTEN FAILS INTERNATIONAL AND U.S. STANDARDS Tests indicate that imported “extra virgin”olive oil often fails international and USDA standards Frankel, E. N.; Mailer, R. J.; Shoemaker, C. F.; Wang, S. C.; Flynn, J. D.-UCDavis Olive Center 20102 Gardiner, Alan H. (1916). Notes on the Story of Sinuhe. Paris: Librairie Honoré Champion.
4 International Olive Oil Council standards
7 An Overview of the Authentication of Olive Tree and Oil – Rayda Ben-Ayed1,2, Naziha Kamoun-Grati3, Ahmed Rebai4,* – Article first published online: 11 MAR 2013 – DOI: 10.1111/1541-4337.12003
8 Italian Regulation nr. 2 dated 10th January 2006 that does not allow the topping up of the olive bottles present in the distribution channel HO.RE.CA.
9 Guardia Civil: La Guardia Civil desarticula una organización que mezclaba aceites de baja calidad para comercializarlo como si fuera de oliva
11 Olive Oil’s Growers, Chemists, Cooks and Crooks By DWIGHT GARNER Published: December 7, 2011 The New York Times
12 101 Health Benefits of Olive Oil by EthnicHealth
13 Extra Virginity: The Sublime and Scandalous World of Olive Oil by Tom Mueller – review by The Guardian
14 Economic analysis of the olive sector – European Commission, Directorate-General for Agriculture and Rural Development Latest update: July 2012
14 The “Smoke Point” by Claude S. Weiller California Olive Ranch March 02 2010
15 United States Standards for Grades of Olive Oil and Olive-Pomace Oil United States Federal Register October 24 2010
16 California Olive Oil Council standards
17 “Extra Virgin” . . . What’s It Mean? All Things Olive
20 Fruit, vegetables, and olive oil and risk of coronary heart disease in Italian women: the EPICOR Study The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
21 Source of major health benefits in olive oil revealed Eurekalert Press Release
23 The Mediterranean diet: The reasons for a success Bonaccio, Marialaura; Iacoviello, Licia; de Gaetano, Giovanni; on behalf of the Moli-sani Investigators, Giovanni
24 Beneficial Properties of Olive Oil Helen M Roche et. al.
25 Detecting and Quantifying Sunflower Oil Adulteration in Extra Virgin Olive Oils from the Eastern Mediterranean by Visible and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy GERARD DOWNEY, PETER MCINTYRE, AND ANTONY N. DAVIES
26 Identification of adulterants in olive oils I., Wesley; F., Pacheco; A., McGill
27 Quality Evaluation of Olives, Olive Pomace and Olive Oil by Infrared Spectroscopy Ivonne Delgadillo, António Barros and Alexandra Nunes Department of Chemistry, QOPNA Research Unit, University of Aveiro Portugal
28 The Olive Tree: The Origin and Expsnion of the Olive Tree International Olive Oil
29 Can American Virginity Be Saved? By TOM MUELLER The Wall Street Journal
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